Curriculum Requirements

Core Courses
OPH 610Anatomy and Physiology of the Eye1
OPH 615Pathology of Eye Diseases1
OPH 620Ocular Pharmacology, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics1
OPH 625Microbiology and Immunology of the Eye1
OPH 630Ophthalmic Genetics1
OPH 635Electrophysiology of the eye1
OPH 640Vision and Optics2
OPH 645Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Ophthalmology2
Laboratory Courses
OPH 661LAB: Basic Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Pathology3
OPH 662Lab: Basic and Applied Optics and Statistics1
OPH 663Lab: Electrophysiology, Clinical Testing and Applications1
Problem-Based Learning
OPH 771PBL - Advanced and high throughput approaches in Science2
OPH 772PBL: Management skills and Tools for Academia and Enterprises2
OPH 773PBL: Animal models, Regulatory issues and Research methods2
Electives
OPH 691Clinical Ophthalmology Update2
Thesis
OPH 810Ophthalmology Research Thesis7
Total Credit Hours30

Suggested Plan of Study

Plan of Study Grid
Year One
FallCredit Hours
OPH 610 Anatomy and Physiology of the Eye 1
OPH 615 Pathology of Eye Diseases 1
OPH 620 Ocular Pharmacology, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics 1
OPH 625 Microbiology and Immunology of the Eye 1
OPH 630 Ophthalmic Genetics 1
OPH 645 Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Ophthalmology 2
OPH 661 LAB: Basic Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Pathology 3
OPH 771 PBL - Advanced and high throughput approaches in Science 2
 Credit Hours12
Spring
OPH 635 Electrophysiology of the eye 1
OPH 640 Vision and Optics 2
OPH 662 Lab: Basic and Applied Optics and Statistics 1
OPH 663 Lab: Electrophysiology, Clinical Testing and Applications 1
OPH 772 PBL: Management skills and Tools for Academia and Enterprises 2
OPH 773 PBL: Animal models, Regulatory issues and Research methods 2
 Credit Hours9
Year Two
Fall
OPH 691 Clinical Ophthalmology Update 2
OPH 810 Ophthalmology Research Thesis 4
 Credit Hours6
Spring
OPH 810 Ophthalmology Research Thesis 3
 Credit Hours3
 Total Credit Hours30

OPH 610. Anatomy and Physiology of the Eye. 1 Credit Hour.

This course introduces the major anatomical and physiological regions of the eye, including cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve, cranial nerves and extraocular tissues. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the eye and others systems. Demonstrations include eye dissection, visual testing and visual perception experimentation.
Components: LEC.
Grading: GRD.
Typically Offered: Fall.

OPH 615. Pathology of Eye Diseases. 1 Credit Hour.

This course covers in detail the major pathologies of the eye, including congenital diseases and syndromes, infectious diseases, tumors and adult-onset degenerations. Emphasis is placed on pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to pathology, and also covers examination of the eye, diagnostic features, and management of major eye diseases. Demonstrations include histological sections, OCT, visual field and angiogram, and associated diagnostic criteria.
Components: LEC.
Grading: GRD.
Typically Offered: Fall.

OPH 620. Ocular Pharmacology, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics. 1 Credit Hour.

Course will teach local anesthetics, anti-infectious, anti-allergic agents, control of ocular pain, adverse ocular and systemic reactions caused by therapeutic agents will be part of the course. Ocular therapeutic principles (pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, toxicity), sources of drug information, new drug development, drug regulations as applicable to different areas of operation including prescription writing will be discussed.An introductory course in epidemiologic and biostatistics methodology covering study design for investigation of both infectious and chronic diseases of the eye; screening programs and health services research will also be discussed. Outbreak investigation, natural history of infectious diseases, validity of clinical tests, survival analysis, and clinical trial and etiologic studies will be discussed. Methods of biostatistician evaluation of experiment design and analyses of data to decipher significant from non-significant results and general tools for statistical analyses will be reviewed.
Components: LEC.
Grading: GRD.
Typically Offered: Fall.

OPH 625. Microbiology and Immunology of the Eye. 1 Credit Hour.

Students will learn concepts and terminologies of immunology, bacteriology, virology, parasitology and mycology with an emphasis on mechanisms of microbial disease transmission and host defense mechanisms. Students become familiar with the types of organisms responsible for human disease, the mechanisms by which they produce disease, and the application of this knowledge to the treatment of patients. This course integrates the biomedical disciplines of immunology and medical microbiology. Infectious and immunological diseases with relevance to the clinical setting and pharmacological approaches will be presented. A basic understanding of the classification and characteristics of infectious microorganisms, the mechanisms by which infectious agents cause disease, and methods of both prevention and treatment are highlighted. Causes and treatment of immune diseases will also be presented. Concepts of inflammation, sepsis, cell injury, tissue repair, hemodynamic disorders, genetic disorders, environmental and nutritional pathology, immunodeficiency diseases, autoimmune and metabolic diseases will be presented.Throughout the course, small group tutorials and interactive clinical correlations based on clinical cases linking basic science concepts to clinical medicine will be presented. Tutorials, clinico-pathological correlations and laboratories emphasize problem-solving skills, integration of knowledge and independent learning.
Components: LEC.
Grading: GRD.
Typically Offered: Fall.

OPH 630. Ophthalmic Genetics. 1 Credit Hour.

This course provides an overview of the influence of genetics in ophthalmology with respect to understanding pathogenic mechanisms of eye diseases, and the development of novel therapeutic strategies. The course will provide an introduction to complex and Mendelian genetics, and research strategies involved in identifying disease-associated genetic changes. Specific topics include hereditary retinal diseases, genetic associations in age related macular degeneration and glaucoma, genetics of myopia and optic nerve diseases, and mitochondrial disorders affecting the eye. Additional discussions include current gene therapy clinical trials.
Components: LEC.
Grading: GRD.
Typically Offered: Spring.

OPH 635. Electrophysiology of the eye. 1 Credit Hour.

This course will introduce the basic principles of electrophysiology of the eye, identify neural signals, neurotransmitters, molecular signaling within neurons. Additionally, the sensation and sensory systems. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the eye and other signals and senses.
Corequisite: OPH 663.
Components: LEC.
Grading: GRD.
Typically Offered: Spring.

OPH 640. Vision and Optics. 2 Credit Hours.

This course will provide an introduction to the principles of geometrical optics and its application to the study and assessment of the visual system. Topic covered will include fundamental of geometrical optics, principles of optical system components (lenses, mirrors, prisms, light sources), optics of the eye and vision correction, basic principles of visual optical instruments (loupe, microscopes, telescopes), and principles and applications of ophthalmic diagnostic and imaging systems, including ophthalmoscopes, retinoscopes, slit-lamp, keratometers, corneal topography systems, aberrometers and optical coherence tomography.
Corequisite: OPH 662.
Components: LEC.
Grading: GRD.
Typically Offered: Spring.

OPH 645. Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Ophthalmology. 2 Credit Hours.

An introduction to biochemistry with emphasis on ocular clinical applications. Topics will include nutrition, cellular biology, biochemistry of tears, conjunctiva, and cornea. The structure and functions of proteins and enzymes as well as metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids will be discussed. Case studies and journal articles will be used to demonstrate the useful applications of these principles to ocular health-related issues.
Components: LEC.
Grading: GRD.
Typically Offered: Fall.

OPH 661. LAB: Basic Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Pathology. 3 Credit Hours.

Experiments related to molecular biology (includes PCR, DNA cloning, hybridization analysis, restriction mapping, and DNA sequence analysis), protein purification and analysis (salt fractionation, ion exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and immuno-blotting), and determination of enzyme kinetic parameters.
Components: LAB.
Grading: GRD.
Typically Offered: Fall.

OPH 662. Lab: Basic and Applied Optics and Statistics. 1 Credit Hour.

This laboratory course serves as a companion to the Vision and Optics course. It will include practical hands-on examples of the application of geometrical optical theory to the design and calculation of optical systems, provide an initial hands-on experience with basic optical system setup on an optical bench, and provide basic hand-on training or demonstration of ophthalmic diagnostic techniques and instruments, including refraction, ophthalmoscopy, retinoscopy, slit-lamp examination, aberrometry, corneal topography and optical coherence tomography.
Corequisite: OPH 640.
Components: LAB.
Grading: GRD.
Typically Offered: Spring.

OPH 663. Lab: Electrophysiology, Clinical Testing and Applications. 1 Credit Hour.

This laboratory work will introduce the students to novel clinical recording techniques, electrophysiologic tests, and clinical applications of ERG, EOG, and VEP. Emphasis is placed on novel and specialized clinical applications and recordings.The course will be divided in two sections. Section one ends with focus on the effects of maturation, aging, and testing in infants. Section two will conclude withelectrophysiologic findings of many clinical conditions and clinical applications of ERG, EOG, and VEP of various eye disorders/diseases.
Corequisite: OPH 635.
Components: LAB.
Grading: GRD.
Typically Offered: Spring.

OPH 691. Clinical Ophthalmology Update. 2 Credit Hours.

Course will focus on Society, Science, and Medicine. The history and evolution ofmedicine, seminars offered on different aspects of medicine including a broad spectrum view of career options. The emphasis will be how medicine has been developed historically, its efficacy, and the future outlook.For example, antibiotic resistant bacteria was discovered in 12,000 year oldunderground caves that makes us realize that antibiotic resistance is an old problemand we need to have an outlook bearing that in mind.Students will learn history as to how medicines were developed. How society reacted to these developments; the major hurdles and eureka moments.The broad range of career options in the new environment due to different aspects of medicine development and dispensation necessitating specialized expertise, which are broadly different from each other and requires specialized preparation.
Components: LEC.
Grading: GRD.
Typically Offered: Summer.

OPH 771. PBL - Advanced and high throughput approaches in Science. 2 Credit Hours.

The Problem-Based Learning Method (PBL) was designed to teach students in small groups to identify specific techniques that will yield the answers to the problems. Content will include the underlying norms and principles that shaped these concepts. The courses also include plenary session presentations by experts on relevant topics and their use in preparing manuscripts and grant applications and policies regarding conduct of experiments using these techniques.
Components: ENS.
Grading: GRD.
Typically Offered: Fall.

OPH 772. PBL: Management skills and Tools for Academia and Enterprises. 2 Credit Hours.

This Problem-Based learning course will introduce grant writing, pre-award preparation, post-award management and will be taught using problem-based modules. Federal and non-federal extramural grants will be used as modules specific aspects of different segmental grants will be presented. Major research grant, training and fellowships, grants-in-aid will be taught.In addition, small business innovation research (SBIR) or STTR will be covered.Students will learn techniques to analyze markets, identify optimal opportunities,develop plans to sell their vision in order to attract talent and stakeholders. A series of problem-based lectures integrates modern business concepts from an entrepreneurial approach.
Components: ENS.
Grading: GRD.
Typically Offered: Spring.

OPH 773. PBL: Animal models, Regulatory issues and Research methods. 2 Credit Hours.

Part I: The aim of this Problem-Based learning course is to provide students the basic understanding and expertise pertaining to generation and implementation of preclinical research IACUC protocol. This course consists of a problem based learning module with a focus on developing students’ understanding of various animal models in preclinical research and how to refine animal research models that meet the requirement of IACUC regulation. Part II: The purpose of this course is to provide clinical research regulatory expertise with an aim to create future leaders in the drug development industry. This regulatory science course uses a multidisciplinary approach and encompasses course work in regulatory writing techniques, quality systems, and medical device and pharmaceutical regulation. The concentration is designed to develop the student's understanding of how to meet regulatory oversight requirements as they relate to the conduct of clinical studies. This course will prepare students to play critical roles throughout the lifecycle of pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and biologics. They provide strategic, tactical and operational direction, and support for working within regulations to expedite the development and delivery of safe and effective healthcare products to individuals around the world. The regulatory professional's services can be utilized in research and development, clinical trials, extension of premarket approvals, manufacturing, labeling and advertising, and post-market surveillance. Knowledge of clinical research conduct and management which involves the design, execution and management of clinical trials as well as quality assurance and compliance principles are important to regulatory professionals. Course also provides highlight on how to effectively partner with experts such as writers drafting pre- and post- approval regulatory FDA submission documentation (INDs, NDAs, PMAs etc.) for product clearance or licensure, IRB reviewers and investigational Pharmacists to enhance the development of healthcare products.
Components: ENS.
Grading: GRD.
Typically Offered: Spring.

OPH 810. Ophthalmology Research Thesis. 1-7 Credit Hours.

The course allows the student to work full-time on a research project of interest under the supervision of research/clinical faculty or a team of faculty members.
Components: THE.
Grading: SUS.
Typically Offered: Fall.